12 Cultural Bias Examples (2023) (2023)

12 Cultural Bias Examples (2023) (1)

A cultural bias occurs when we are inclined to interpret a situation from your own cultural perspective. This can cause cultural disagreements, confusion, and offense.

We are used to things being done a certain way, so we form a very firm expectation.

When we travel to another country or meet people from a different culture, we can encounter things that are different. This creates an initial feeling of shock when our expectations are not met, which can then lead to an unfavorable view of those situations because they are so different from those from which we are accustomed.

These expectations can include table etiquette, how people greet and speak to each other, relationships at work, and even the use of household appliances.

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Definition of Cultural Bias

The formal term for our culturally-skewed perspective is ethnocentrism. It means that we think our cultural practices and customs are the correct standards that other cultures should follow.

We implicitly see our own culture as the ‘anchoring point’ (e.g. the norm, in the anchoring bias heuristic), and all other cultures are judged as ‘different’.

Although Sumner (1906) is usually given credit as the first to have coined the term, Bizumic (2014) contends that references to the concept actually occurred several decades prior.

Hard to believe that over 100 years ago scholars were so enlightened, and yet, most of us today are still exhibiting these same biases. It is even more surprising given the scale of cross-cultural communication that exists in the 21st century with the prevalence of the internet and global social media platforms.

Examples of Cultural Bias

1. Biased HR Hiring Practices

Sometimes, people have implicit cultural bias when hiring people. Many studies have shown that people from the dominant culture tend to have an advantage in job interviews due to their high cultural capital.

Living in a pluralistic society has many advantages. Everyday life involves a wide variety of dining options, choices of music, and ways of expression.

It also brings challenges. One of those challenges involves hiring decisions made by HR managers. In order to ensure a diverse workplace and to avoid having one’s own cultural biases affect hiring decision, HR departments often implement practices that help ensure a diverse array of job candidates.

One technique is to make copies of resumes that exclude place of birth. Another is to cover the applicant’s name. One can infer the ethnicity from a person’s first or last name with some accuracy.

Although these practices are well-intentioned, obviously they are not full-proof. Eventually an in-person interview will be necessary, at which point an applicant’s ethnicity will most likely be apparent.

Many HR departments try as best they can to avoid their own cultural biases.

Related Article: 15 Affinity Bias Examples

2. Cultural Approaches to Teamwork

Cultural differences in team meetings can take many forms. In some Western cultures, participating in a team meeting is highly encouraged while some Asian cultures encourage individualistic work.

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In fact, in the west, not being involved by asking questions or making suggestions can be interpreted as a sign of disinterest or lack of motivation.

However, in some Asian cultures it is customary for employees to sit quietly while the manager or team leader does nearly all of the talking. They may speak continuously for an hour or longer, with no interruptions.

If an employee were to make a suggestion, no matter how well-intended their motives may be, it can be interpreted as questioning the leader’s authority. It can be seen as an extreme show of disrespect.

Unfortunately, this may also lead to a cultural bias against a person from the West. Their Eastern colleagues will not be happy with the perceived aggressiveness and disrespectful attitude.

Related Article: 15 In-Group Bias Examples

3. Cultural Approaches to Punctuality

The concept of punctuality is defined quite differently in many cultures. Some cultures prize punctuality highly, while others see it as a guideline. This can cause some culture shock for people traveling to cultures with different cultural norms around punctuality.

For example, in North American countries, punctuality is extremely important. Having a meeting at 9 a.m. is strictly interpreted as 9:00 o’clock, exactly.

However, in South America, the cultural definition of being “on-time” is much more flexible. It is common to start a meeting 30-minutes, or even 2 hours late. When this happens, it is not surprising or seen as poor time management. There is just a different conception of time.

Of course, when people from both cultures try to hold a meeting, it can lead to significant misunderstandings. People in the North will see lateness as irresponsible and lacking motivation or interest. People in the South will see the attitude of those in the North as being unreasonable and bossy.

4. Differing Perspectives of Eye Contact

Looking someone directly in the eye is one of those customs that vary greatly depending on the culture. In some, maintaining direct eye contact is a show of respect and honesty. In another culture, however, it can be interpreted as rude and even confrontational.

To make matters even more complicated, it can carry different meanings within the same culture, depending on the gender or age of the people involved.

It is a relatively simple act, but yet has a very nuanced meaning. This is an example of the kind of cultural bias regarding nonverbal communication than can lead to significant misunderstandings.

Sometimes a phone call is a better way to open a dialogue.

5. Differing Cultural Gestures

I recall a story of a visiting professor giving a lecture in a British university when he got extremely insulted by the students having their feet up on the chairs. To him, showing the bottom of your feet was the worst of insults. Here, we see the clash of cultures where the professor and students were unaware of each other’s norms, causing offense.

A gesture is the movement of a body part, such as the hand, that conveys a specific meaning. Gestures exist in every culture, carry varying cultural meanings, and are an integral part of communication.

In the words of Edward Sapir (1949) “We respond to gestures with an extreme
alertness and, one might almost say, in accordance with an elaborate and secret code that is written nowhere, known to none, and understood by all”
(p. 556).

For those of us that lack multicultural experiences, we might enter a foreign land assuming that all gestures are created equally. That can be a dangerous assumption. In some countries, a simple hand gesture can be the equivalent of an insult and may lead to a physical altercation.

6. Differing Housework Practices

Living in the home of someone of another culture is another situation where you might start questioning why these people do such strange things! Of course, their strange practices are probably completely normal in their culture.

If you want to learn about households in other countries, watching a TV show about international house hunting is a great place to start. It is a very entertaining way to get a look inside other people’s homes without having to travel and knock on their door.

And there are some interesting differences. For example, people from North America are accustomed to large rooms, and love walk-in closets and bathtubs. Those features do not exist in common price ranges in some Asian countries.

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Another example is about clothes dryers. In many Asian countries, they simply don’t exist. People are much more accustomed to hanging washed clothes outside and letting mother nature do the drying.

Of course, in the age of environmental protection, this is a great idea. Hanging clothes on a balcony requires no electricity and is good for the environment.

7. Cultural Customs at Dinnertime

You may experience cultural bias when you are exposed to other cultures’ eating habits. Not only what they eat (yuck, snails!) but also how they eat (chopsticks?) can cause you to turn your nose up and say “these people are strange!”

In many Western countries, all the dishes are served simultaneously. That’s why people cook on a 4-burner stove. Whoever is cooking has to have a really good sense of timing and know exactly how long it will take to prepare each part of the meal.

In a lot of Asian countries, dishes are served more sequentially. Some parts of the meal are served first, and then as dinner progresses, other dishes are brought out one at a time. In part, that’s because many people have a 2-burner stove-top.

Another difference is that in Western cultures, everyone eats from their own plate. Each person takes a portion of each item and places it on their own plate. Whereas in many Asian countries, everyone eats from the same bowls placed in the center of the table. It’s definitely more communal.

These are the types of differences that can take some getting used to and can really spark our cultural biases.

8. Cultural Stereotypes in Hollywood Movies

Although movies are made for entertainment purposes, they can perpetuate cultural biases based on narrowly defined caricatures of others. Unfortunately, it can be difficult to not let these portrayals have a long-lasting effect on our impressions.

Hollywood movies that involve characters from various ethnicities and cultural backgrounds often include very stereotypical portrayals. For example, Italians are often portrayed as temperamental and dangerous; the Irish as heavy drinkers and prone to depression; and Aussies are carefree and always barbecuing shrimp. This list could go on for quite some time.

No one likes to be stereotyped and some movies certainly don’t help.

9. Cultural Attitudes to Disciplining Children

Probably one of the most researched cultural differences is child discipline. To spank, or not to spank, is one frequent area of study.

Although in the past it was very common for people in Western society to implement physical discipline in the form of spanking, it has become less common over the last several decades. However, in more traditional households, using physical discipline is still practiced.

It is easy to make value judgments on whether spanking is right or wrong. And in fact, in countries like England, it’s illegal.

Sometimes, when people say they spank because “that’s how it’s always been done in our family”, then this argument becomes an appeal to tradition.

10. Cultural Approaches to Teaching Methodologies

Western teaching practices are characterized as being more open than those in Asian cultures. Some people from an Asian perspective may see Western schools as lacking discipline, while Westerners may turn up their nose at the lack of critical thinking in Asian schools.

Stereotypically, students are given more opportunities for exploration and independent thinking in Western pedagogy. Developing critical thinking skills is a priority and teachers often encourage their students to ask questions.

In many Asian cultures however, classroom practices are more regimented. Teachers are more authoritarian and in control of instruction. Students are given fewer opportunities for exploration and questioning what is found in the textbooks is not encouraged.

Surprisingly, a lot of Asian parents will pay higher tuition rates to send their children to schools that implement Western teaching practices. At the same time, Western educators admire the high math and science test scores that Asia students achieve, year after year.

This may be a case of a cultural bias that manifests itself in a form of cross-cultural admiration.

11. Cultural Approaches to Attributions of Responsibility

Different cultures have different ideas about responsibility – if something went wrong, was it due to your own errors, or environmental factors? Your answer to this may have a lot to do with your cultural upbringing.

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In individualistic cultures, people have a tendency to explain the behaviors of others in terms of dispositional factors. People do things because of their personality characteristics and internal motives.

However, in collectivist cultures, people have a tendency to do the opposite. There is a greater tendency to emphasize situational forces that compel people to act the way they do.

These cultural biases in explaining people’s behavior have been found in the use of the fundamental attribution error and in cases involving criminal behavior.

More specifically, people from individualistic cultures are more likely to exhibit the fundamental attribution error than those from collectivist cultures. Similarly, criminals are seen as more culpable for their actions when judged by people from individualistic cultures than collectivist ones.

12. Believing You Speak Without an Accent

If you think you speak without an accent, you’re a victim of your own cultural bias! You assume your accent is neutral (or even doesn’t exist at all) while everyone else has an accent. This is because we’re so used to our accent that we see it as the ‘norm’.

English is spoken as the primary language in at least 18 countries. Each country, however, has a different pronunciation. Sometimes those differences can be so strong that two people speaking the same language can have a very difficult time understanding each other. Just put a Jamaican in the same room as a Scotsman and watch the games begin.

When one person assumes that their pronunciation of English is the correct one, and people from other countries have an accent, it is an excellent example of cultural bias. More than likely, the people in those other countries consider their pronunciation to be correct and the visitor from a foreign country is the one that speaks funny.


Our biases can take many forms. Westerners may feel shocked at having to dry clothes without an environment-destroying machine, while those in the Far East may marvel at how Western students are so expressive and carefree.

The culture we grew up in creates a bias in our expectations that can be hard to overcome. Although understandable, in the era of rampant cross-cultural communication and the ease today of learning about different customs and practices, ethnocentrism is still as strong as ever.

The only remedy is to travel. By immersing ourselves in the ways of a foreign land we can grow as individuals and develop an enlightened perspective on the state of human existence.

At the end of the day, experiencing cultural differences can enrich all of our lives and hopefully help us evolve as a people.


Bizumic, B. (2014). Who coined the concept of ethnocentrism? A brief report. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 2, 3-10. https://doi.org/10.5964/jspp.v2i1.264

Dodge, K. A., McLoyd, V. C., & Lansford, J. E. (2005). The cultural context of physically disciplining children. In V. C. McLoyd, N. E. Hill, & K. A. Dodge (Eds.), African American family life: Ecological and cultural diversity (pp. 245–263). The Guilford Press.

Mahmood, J. (2021). What do car horns say? An overview of the non-verbal communication of horn honking. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 09, 375-388. https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.98026

Matsumoto, D., Takeuchi, S., Andajani, S., Kouznetsova, N., & Krupp, D. (1998). The contribution of individualism vs. collectivism to cross‐national differences in display rules. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 1, 147 – 165. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-839X.00010

Morris, M., & Peng, K. (1994). Culture and cause: American and Chinese attributions for social and physical events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 949-971. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.67.6.949

Powell, A. (2017). Cultural Bias, Self-Identity, and Self-Efficacy. Intercultural Responsiveness in the Second Language Learning Classroom, 51-61.

Sapir, E. (1949). The unconscious patterning of behavior in society. In D. Mandelbaum (Ed.), Selected writings of Edward Sapir in language, culture and personality (pp. 544-559). Berkeley: University of California Press.

Sumner, W. G. (1906). Folkways: A study of the sociological importance of usages, manners, customs, mores, and morals. Boston, MA: Ginn and Company.

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12 Cultural Bias Examples (2023) (2)

Dave Cornell (PhD)

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Dr. Cornell has worked in education for more than 20 years. His work has involved designing teacher certification for Trinity College in London and in-service training for state governments in the United States. He has trained kindergarten teachers in 8 countries and helped businessmen and women open baby centers and kindergartens in 3 countries.

12 Cultural Bias Examples (2023) (3)

Chris Drew (PhD)

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This article was peer-reviewed and edited by Chris Drew (PhD). The review process on Helpful Professor involves having a PhD level expert fact check, edit, and contribute to articles. Reviewers ensure all content reflects expert academic consensus and is backed up with reference to academic studies. Dr. Drew has published over 20 academic articles in scholarly journals. He is the former editor of the Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education and holds a PhD in Education from ACU.

(Video) The Most Common Cognitive Bias


What are some examples of cultural bias? ›

Some cultures perceive certain hand gestures or prolonged eye contact as a sign of disrespect, whereas other cultures may assume that those who do not shake hands or look into someone's eyes are being rude or evasive.

What is an example of cultural bias in IQ tests? ›

Intelligence tests contain cultural bias—they contain a strong bias that is in favor White, middle class groups; for example: (a) the tests measure knowledge and content that are more familiar to White, middle class Page 22 6 students than to diverse students; (b) the language on these tests is more familiar to White, ...

What is an example of cultural bias in the workplace? ›

Examples of cultural bias in the workplace include assuming that all Asians are good at math. If a manager sees John as an Asian person who is good with numbers but not people, he may never be given the opportunity to develop his people skills and he may eventually leave the company due to lack of opportunities.

What are examples of cultural bias test? ›

Test Bias Examples

A real-life example of cultural bias in testing is an analogy question that appeared on an SAT test in the 1980s asking students to find the comparable analogy to ''Runner: Marathon. '' The answer was ''Oarsman: Regatta'' which would be more familiar to students from white, affluent families.

What are 10 examples of culture? ›

The following are illustrative examples of traditional culture.
  • Norms. Norms are informal, unwritten rules that govern social behaviors. ...
  • Languages. ...
  • Festivals. ...
  • Rituals & Ceremony. ...
  • Holidays. ...
  • Pastimes. ...
  • Food. ...
  • Architecture.
May 10, 2018

What are the 7 forms of bias? ›

  • Seven Forms of Bias.
  • Invisibility:
  • Stereotyping:
  • Imbalance and Selectivity:
  • Unreality:
  • Fragmentation and Isolation:
  • Linguistic Bias:
  • Cosmetic Bias:

What is cultural biases in society? ›

A cultural bias is a tendency to interpret a word or action according to culturally derived meaning assigned to it. Cultural bias derives from cultural variation, discussed later in this chapter. For example, some cultures view smiles as a deeply personal sign of happiness that is only shared with intimates.

What are examples of bias in statistics? ›

Sampling bias: refers to a biased sample caused by non-random sampling. To give an example, imagine that there are 10 people in a room and you ask if they prefer grapes or bananas. If you only surveyed the three females and concluded that the majority of people like grapes, you'd have demonstrated sampling bias.

What are 5 cultural examples? ›

Customs, laws, dress, architectural style, social standards and traditions are all examples of cultural elements.

What are 7 examples of culture? ›

They are social organization, customs, religion, language, government, economy, and arts.

What are 5 examples of cultural practices? ›

  • Religious and spiritual practices.
  • Medical treatment practices.
  • Forms of artistic expression.
  • Dietary preferences and culinary practices.
  • Cultural institutions (see also Cultural Institutions Studies)
  • Natural resource management.
  • Housing and construction.
  • Childcare practices.

What are the six common types of bias? ›

We've handpicked six common types of bias and share our tips to overcome them:
  • Confirmation bias. Confirmation bias is when data is analysed and interpreted to confirm hypotheses and expectations. ...
  • The Hawthorne effect. ...
  • Implicit bias. ...
  • Expectancy bias. ...
  • Leading Language. ...
  • Recall bias.

What is a simple example of bias? ›

It is a lack of objectivity when looking at something. The bias can be both intentional and unintentional. For example, a person may like one shirt more than two others when given a choice because the shirt they picked is also their favorite color.

What are the 12 elements of culture examples? ›

Terms in this set (12)
  • Appearance. How people look.
  • Belief systems. Their religion.
  • Communication. How they talk.
  • Dates/ historical events. Important dates to the people.
  • Entertainment. How they have fun.
  • Food people eat. What they eat.
  • Government. How they run their region.
  • Housing and type of agriculture. How they live.

What are the 12 characteristics of culture? ›

Features & Characteristics of Culture
  • Culture is learned. Culture is not inherited biologically but it is leant socially by man in a society. ...
  • Culture is social. ...
  • Culture is shared. ...
  • Culture is transmitted. ...
  • Culture is continuous. ...
  • Culture is accumulative. ...
  • Culture is integrated. ...
  • Culture is changing.

What are the 8 types of culture? ›

8 Most Common Types of Workplace Cultures
  • Adhocracy Culture.
  • Clan Culture.
  • Customer-Focused Culture.
  • Hierarchy Culture.
  • Market-Driven Culture.
  • Purpose-Driven Culture.
  • Innovative Culture.
  • Creative Culture.

What are 3 common biases? ›

Confirmation bias, sampling bias, and brilliance bias are three examples that can affect our ability to critically engage with information. Jono Hey of Sketchplanations walks us through these cognitive bias examples, to help us better understand how they influence our day-to-day lives.

What are the 4 types of bias? ›

4 leading types of bias in research and how to prevent them from impacting your survey
  • Asking the wrong questions. It's impossible to get the right answers if you ask the wrong questions. ...
  • Surveying the wrong people. ...
  • Using an exclusive collection method. ...
  • Misinterpreting your data results.

What are the 16 cognitive biases? ›

The 16 Critical Cognitive Biases (Plus Key Academic Research)
1 more row
Nov 12, 2021

What are common biases? ›

Pessimism Bias: We sometimes overestimate the likelihood of bad outcomes. Optimism Bias: We sometimes are over-optimistic about good outcomes. Blind Spot Bias: We don't think we have bias, and we see it others more than ourselves.

What are some examples of social bias? ›

For example, one common bias is that women are weak (despite many being very strong). Another is that blacks are dishonest (when most aren't). Another is that obese people are lazy (when their weight may be due to any of a range of factors, including disease). People often are not aware of their biases.

What is the most popular bias? ›

1. Confirmation Bias. One of the most common cognitive biases is confirmation bias. Confirmation bias is when a person looks for and interprets information (be it news stories, statistical data or the opinions of others) that backs up an assumption or theory they already have.

What are the 10 cultural values? ›

This feedback report includes information on ten cultural value dimensions.
  • Individualism.
  • Collectivism.
  • Low Power Distance.
  • High Power Distance.
  • Low Uncertainty Avoidance.
  • High Uncertainty Avoidance Emphasis on planning and predictability.
  • Cooperative.
  • Competitive.

What are the 7 cultural characteristics? ›

Traits: Seven (7) Major Traits of Culture
  • Learned.
  • Transmitted.
  • Based on Symbols.
  • Changeable.
  • Integrated.
  • Ethnocentric.
  • Adaptive.

What are the 11 aspects of culture? ›

Thus, culture includes many societal aspects: language, customs, values, norms, mores, rules, tools, technologies, products, organizations, and institutions.

What are the 9 types of culture? ›

There are nine main types of company culture.
  • Clan or Collaborative Culture. A company with a clan or collaborative culture feels like a family. ...
  • Purpose Culture. ...
  • Hierarchy or Control Culture. ...
  • Adhocracy or Creative Culture. ...
  • Market or Compete Culture. ...
  • Strong Leadership Culture. ...
  • Customer-First Culture. ...
  • Role-Based Culture.
May 30, 2020

What are the 10 characteristics of culture? ›

Characteristics of Culture:
  • Learned Behaviour: ...
  • Culture is Abstract: ...
  • Culture is a Pattern of Learned Behaviour: ...
  • Culture is the Products of Behaviour: ...
  • Culture includes Attitudes, Values Knowledge: ...
  • Culture also includes Material Objects: ...
  • Culture is shared by the Members of Society: ...
  • Culture is Super-organic:

What are the 5 most popular cultures? ›

  • Italy.
  • France.
  • Spain.
  • United States of America (USA)
  • United Kingdom (UK)

What are the 6 types of culture? ›

  • National / Societal Culture.
  • Organizational Culture.
  • Social Identity Group Culture.
  • Functional Culture.
  • Team Culture.
  • Individual Culture.

What are culture examples? ›

Culture can be defined as all the ways of life including arts, beliefs and institutions of a population that are passed down from generation to generation. Culture has been called "the way of life for an entire society." As such, it includes codes of manners, dress, language, religion, rituals, art.

What are 3 examples of cultural learning? ›

Cultural learning manifests itself in three forms during human ontogeny: imitative learning, instructed learning, and collaborative learning - in that order.

How many biases do humans have? ›

In total, there are over 180 cognitive biases that interfere with how we process data, think critically, and perceive reality.

How many different types of bias are there? ›

There are two main types of bias to be aware of, conscious bias and unconscious bias.

Can u have 3 biases? ›

Don't forget, it's perfectly okay to have more than one bias. Biases are the members you can connect with, and in the larger groups especially, it's easy to love more than one member.

What is bias short answer? ›

Bias is a disproportionate weight in favor of or against an idea or thing, usually in a way that is closed-minded, prejudicial, or unfair. Biases can be innate or learned. People may develop biases for or against an individual, a group, or a belief.

What is cultural bias in simple words? ›

Definition. Cultural bias involves a prejudice or highlighted distinction in viewpoint that suggests a preference of one culture over another. Cultural bias can be described as discriminative. There is a lack of group integration of social values, beliefs, and rules of conduct.

What is cultural bias in simple terms? ›

the tendency to interpret and judge phenomena in terms of the distinctive values, beliefs, and other characteristics of the society or community to which one belongs. This sometimes leads people to form opinions and make decisions about others in advance of any actual experience with them (see prejudice).

What are the 7 examples of culture? ›

There are seven elements, or parts, of a single culture. They are social organization, customs, religion, language, government, economy, and arts.

What are the 6 types of biases? ›

We've handpicked six common types of bias and share our tips to overcome them:
  • Confirmation bias. Confirmation bias is when data is analysed and interpreted to confirm hypotheses and expectations. ...
  • The Hawthorne effect. ...
  • Implicit bias. ...
  • Expectancy bias. ...
  • Leading Language. ...
  • Recall bias.

What are the 5 types of bias you can find in the media? ›

Claims of media bias in the United States include claims of liberal bias, conservative bias, mainstream bias, corporate bias and activist/cause bias. To combat this, a variety of watchdog groups that attempt to find the facts behind both biased reporting and unfounded claims of bias have been founded.

What are the examples of bias words? ›

Words like “blacklist” are an example of bias language and imply Black is bad and White (e.g. “whitelist”) is good. A sentence using bias like “blacklist” might turn off Black candidates. Example of bias in a sentence: “Mail control and blacklist monitoring.”

What does bias mean example? ›

bias noun (PREFERENCE)

the action of supporting or opposing a particular person or thing in an unfair way, because of allowing personal opinions to influence your judgment: The senator has accused the media of bias. Reporters need to be impartial and not show political bias.

What is the impact of cultural bias? ›

Cultural stereotyping limit management's ability to make best use of their employees' skills and help them develop new skills. It can also affect employee morale and productivity. Cultural biases can occur in the hiring process which leads to less racial or cultural diversity in the workplace.

How does cultural bias occur? ›

Cultural bias occurs when people of a culture make assumptions about conventions, including conventions of language, notation, proof and evidence. They are then accused of mistaking these assumptions for laws of logic or nature.


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