Laser Beam Collimation (2022)

Types of CW Lasers for Analytics

Many analytical methods use a CW laser as an excitation source. Physical principles of fluorescence, Raman scattering, absorption, Rayleigh scattering employ laser beam for transferring energy to molecules, thus exciting them or sometimes taking energy away. Where there is no need for high-resolution scanning or very uniform illumination, various laser beams might be used. But whenever it comes to having a good ability to focus or uniformity of intensity, just certain types of lasers can be picked.

The visible and NIR spectral regions can be covered with either laser sources having a continuously tunable wavelength, supercontinuum sources, or smaller and much cheaper CW laser modules having discrete spectral lines from UV to infrared. In this article, we focus on compact CW lasers and their specialty.

With respect to beam profile, continuous wave (CW) lasers can be categorized as having Single-Spatial-Mode (SM) or Multiple Spatial Modes (MM). Spatial modes are also referred to as ‘transversal modes’ or simply ‘beam modes’. These modes are explained here.

Further, based on an operational principle, lasers can be subcategorized as diode lasers or Diode-Pumped Solid-State (DPSS) lasers. Eventually, Integrated Optics offers both of these subtypes in four different modules - Free-Space (beam propagates directly from the laser module), Single-Mode Fiber (SMF; beam propagates through an optical fiber, which supports only single spatial mode), Multi-Mode Fiber (MMF; fiber supports multiple spatial modes), and Polarization-Maintaining Fiber (PMF; SM fiber which is designed to maintain linear polarization during propagation).

Ways to Collimate a Laser Beam

Laser Beam Collimation (1)

Fig. 1. An aspheric lens is being used to collimate a laser diode beam.

Quite often CW lasers have a short cavity. The resonator of microchip DPSS lasers may vary from less than a millimeter to few millimeters. Cavities of single-mode laser diodes are in the range of hundreds of microns. Generally speaking, such short cavities produce highly divergent beams, which are not very usable in optical systems.

The divergence requirement in microscopy and spectroscopy is often less than 2 mrad (full angle) or even less than 1.5 mrad. In order to meet this requirement of modern analytical instruments, laser beams have to be collimated. This can be understood as putting a lens or a set of lenses in front of the laser cavity – does not matter be it a semiconductor laser cavity or a short DPSS resonator. However, for different types of lasers (diode and DPSS) the beam specifications are completely different.

A diode laser beam features low wavefront quality and high astigmatism - the divergence in the so-called fast axis is much higher than divergence in the slow axis. Various techniques are used for collimating such an astigmatic beam and in this consideration several objectives are important. The primary goal of collimation is to reduce the divergence of a beam, the secondary goal is to eliminate astigmatism as much as possible, third – to improve wavefront quality, fourth – to make the beam less elliptical, fifth – to maintain good focusability.

The most simple and popular way is to collimate a laser diode beam by using a single aspheric lens. (see Fig. 1). The larger is the focal length of this lens, the larger will the beam diameter be after collimation. Furthermore, if a certain beam adjustment has to be made, for example in order to expand the beam radius of a collimated beam, two lens system is often used - the so-called telescope. One lens with a negative focal length and the other with a positive one creates a setup to collimate and expand or shrink the beam.

Quite frequently the most popular way to focus a laser diode beam is to use a two-lens system where one lens collimates the highly divergent beam and the second lens focuses it. Alternatively, a single aspheric lens can be used to focus the beam for direct focusing, but in most cases, it causes severe aberrations, larger beams, and lots of diffractions. By definition, beam quality implies a measure for how well a laser beam can be focused.

Beam Quality

For beam quality measurements in most cases, a measurable variable M2 is being used and is defined as beam quality factor. It is a quantity that represents the degree of variation of a beam from a perfect Gaussian beam at the same wavelength, ideally 1. Most low-power DPSS lasers feature high beam quality, whereas high-power DPSS lasers have a much higher M2 factor, as thermal effects become stronger in a laser crystal. Diode lasers tend to have poorer beam quality than DPPS, but low-power diode lasers M2 factor is still rather low - around 1.3. To conclude, for achieving the best focussable (highest quality) beams, low-power DPSS lasers are the best choice.

Ellipticity and Methods to Circularize a Laser Beam

Semiconductor laser diodes have an oblong emitter shape. This is the main reason why the beam emitted by a laser diode features different divergence parameters. In the direction where the gain region is narrower, the divergence is higher, as compared to the broader direction. The axis with the highest divergence is called the 'fast axis', whereas the orthogonal axis is called the 'slow axis'. Collimation of such beam with a single lens makes the beam elliptical.

In some operations, a rounded beam cross-section is much more desired than an elliptical shape beam. Usually, the first idea for collimating and circularizing a beam emitted by a semiconductor laser is to use two orthogonally positioned cylindrical lenses. As shown in Fig 3. One lens is placed to collimate the beam in the fast axis direction, another – in the slow axis direction. The ratio of focal lengths of both lenses is related to the ratio of laser beam divergence in fast and slow axes. Even though this elegant way looks suitable, the reality is different – cylindrical lenses must ideally be acylindrical, otherwise, the beam will have some spherical aberrations. A pair of regular cylindrical lenses are used in practice mainly for MM laser beam manipulations, where aberration is not a worry.

Laser Beam Collimation (2)

Fig. 2. Collimation using two cylindrical lenses (anamorphic lens pair).

Talking about SM laser diode beam circularization, a pair of anamorphic prisms is often the case (see Fig. 3). A collimated elliptical beam can be circularized by either expanding in the slow axis of the ellipsis or compressing in the fast axis direction. After propagation through the prisms, a minor lateral beam displacement occurs. Besides, in some cases, the beam is transmitted through a circular aperture in order to circularize both its shape and intensity distribution. Fig. 4 displays the transformation of a laser diode beam throughout the process.

The other two methods will not be covered in detail, but are also widely used – attaching a microlens, e.g. an SM fiber to the lasing output will circularize an elliptical beam. In many cases, this method brings higher optical quality compared to the circularization by anamorphic prism pairs. A cylindrical microlens is capable of circularizing elliptical beams of laser diodes as well. Minor flaws occur using microlenses, as scattering is generated. Cylindrical microlenses are small, but position and orientation need to be carefully adjusted and a wavefront sensor is needed for such operation.

(Video) Laser Beam Collimation

SM fiber coupling is another delicate way to deal with an elliptical beam. The result is distinguished by a very low wavefront error and, undoubtedly, is the best choice for applications where optical fiber is already needed. An SM or PM fiber acts as a spatial filter, which cleans and homogenizes the beam.

Diversity in many cases confuses a buyer when it comes to choosing the right optics setup with both suitable price and beam quality. Let’s discuss concisely the pros and cons of mentioned methods for achieving a wanted beam spot. When talking about two orthogonally positioned cylindrical lenses, these types of lenses are expensive and quite rare in the market. Also, these kinds of lenses will be thick, so higher aberration will occur, reducing the beam quality.

A pair of anamorphic prisms can do the job and this setup is easy to find in the market, the only drawback of this particular setup for circularizing a beam is that a user must deal with the beam displacement and expansion (compression), which is not always wanted.

Table 1. Comparison of different collimation methods for diode and DPSS lasers.

Type

Collimation

Size

Cost

Ellipticity

Popularity

Beam structure

Beam focusability

Beam diameter control

Divergence control

Diode

Single aspheric lens

small

average

high

high

poor

good

(Video) 7 - Collimating a Beam

poor

fair*

Two cylindrical lenses

average

high

average

average

fair

good

average

good

Aspheric lens + anamorphic prisms

large

high

low

high

fair

excellent

average

good

DPSS

Uncollimated

small

(Video) Lab 15 BEAM EXPANDING COLLIMATORS

low

low

high

excellent

excellent

poor

poor

Single lens

small

average

low

high

good

excellent

fair

good

Two lenses

small

high

low

average

good

excellent

(Video) Understanding Collimation to Determine Optical Lens Focal Length

excellent

excellent

Laser Beam Collimation (3)

Fig. 3. Two anamorphic prisms can either expand or compress the beam, regarding the direction it’s propagating.

Laser Beam Collimation (4)

Fig 4. The shape and intensity distribution of a collimated laser diode beam change right before propagating through the prisms (a), after expansion or compression by a pair of anamorphic prisms (b), after clipping by a circular aperture (c), after a long distance propagation (d).

Beam pointing stability and accuracy (Bore sighting)

If a laser beam propagates through some optical setup, this will alter the magnitude and type of beam pointing fluctuations, even if the optical components are completely stable. Nevertheless, mechanical vibrations can affect the alignment of optical elements, affecting the output beam. Thermal effects, especially the thermal expansion of materials, can cause both direct and indirect beam pointing fluctuations. Such matters have significant effects on the optimization of pointing stability. This is why the beam pointing stability of commercial laser products is often quantitatively defined. The most commonly used quantity is angular fluctuations per degree Centigrade.

When considering ways to optimize beam pointing stability, various aspects must be taken into account for choosing a laser setup: how stable resonator mirrors are when mechanical vibrations occur, how well-heated components, such as electric circuits or diodes are refrigerated and isolated and how sensitive the laser’s beam quality is from the perspective of alignment. Pointing fluctuations are often reduced by careful alignment for maximum output power.

Poor Beam Profile Homogeneity Does Not Mean Bad Focusability

Customers are often confused when they see beam profile images of diode lasers, especially in the near-field. In case a diode laser is collimated using just one aspheric lens, the beam in the near-field is strongly elliptical and the wavefront looks distorted. Looking at these pictures customers start to think the focusability of such a beam must be poor.

Tests performed at ‘Integrated Optics’ showed that the wavefront quality becomes better at a longer distance of propagation or in a focal point. Herewith we provide 3 examples of aspheric-lens collimated laser diodes, where the beam was focused with a long focal distance lens (f=200 mm). The tests reveal that close to the focal point the intensity distribution in a beam cross-section becomes more homogeneous. Furthermore, the beam becomes round on both sides of the focal spot and is elliptical in a perpendicular direction (with respect to the initial ellipticity) in the focal plane.

Laser Beam Collimation (5)

Fig. 5. Focusability of a single aspheric lens collimated 405 nm laser diode. The table shows beam diameters in the vertical and horizontal direction as well as the calculated ellipticity.

Laser Beam Collimation (6)

Fig. 6. Magnified image of the focal plane of a 405 nm laser diode (please refer to Fig. 5).

Laser Beam Collimation (7)

Fig. 7. Focusability of a single aspheric lens collimated 633 nm laser diode. The table shows beam diameters in the vertical and horizontal direction as well as the calculated ellipticity. In the near-field, the beam homogeneity is better as compared to the 405 nm laser, but has some tails in the vertical direction – this is also mainly a property of the diode itself.

Laser Beam Collimation (8)

Fig. 8. Magnified image of the focal plane of a 633 nm laser diode (please refer to Fig. 7).

Final Remarks

Laser beams are different, depending on the type of laser (diode vs. DPSS), laser power, the method of collimation, and homogenization applied. Not all applications require a perfect beam, but those with high focusability requirements need either a a beam from a DPSS laser or a well filtered beam from an SM laser diode.

(Video) How to Achieve Optimal Collimation with Fiber Optics

At Integrated Optics, we offer several types of beam collimation. For demanding applications, we always recommend SM/PM fiber-coupled lasers, whereas fiber coupling is offered at very competitive rates, as compared to the competition and provides much higher flexibility and virtually perfect beam quality.

DPSS lasers have better beam quality in most aspects, as compared to diode lasers but are more expensive.

FAQs

Are lasers perfectly collimated? ›

Lasers. Laser light from gas or crystal lasers is highly collimated because it is formed in an optical cavity between two parallel mirrors which constrain the light to a path perpendicular to the surfaces of the mirrors. In practice, gas lasers can use concave mirrors, flat mirrors, or a combination of both.

How do I know if my laser beam is collimated? ›

The collimation can be checked, for example, by measuring the evolution of beam radius over some distance in free space, via a Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor, or with certain kinds of interferometers. In principle, one can use lenses with very different focal lengths to collimate a diverging beam.

How do you achieve a highly collimated laser beam? ›

One lens with a negative focal length and the other with a positive one creates a setup to collimate and expand or shrink the beam. Quite frequently the most popular way to focus a laser diode beam is to use a two-lens system where one lens collimates the highly divergent beam and the second lens focuses it.

How do you calculate beam collimation? ›

Collimating Light from a Point Source

If we collimate the output from this source using a lens with focal length f, then the result will be a beam with a radius y2 = θ1f and divergence angle θ2 = y1/f. Note that, no matter what lens is used, the beam radius and beam divergence have a reciprocal relation.

Are all lasers collimated? ›

Lasers are not perfectly collimated.

How does laser collimation work? ›

How do laser collimators work? Laser collimators work by projecting a beam of laser light off the secondary mirror in a telescope, down to the main mirror and back again. If the mirrors are correctly collimated, then the beam should be reflected back upon itself.

How do you test a laser collimator? ›

Telescope Tips: Collimating a Laser Collimator - YouTube

How do you collimate a laser beam? ›

To collimate a diverging light source with a lens, you can place the lens a distance away from the source, equal to the focal length of the lens. Here, we have a diverging beam of light and a positive lens at a distance equal to the focal length away.

How do you prevent laser beam divergence? ›

Beam expanders are often used to reduce beam divergence and ensure the beam diameter does not exceed a specified limit at distances far from the output beam waist.

How do you collimate a diode laser? ›

The first is to add a cylindrical lens or anamorphic prism in front of the diode before collimating it. A second technique is to couple the light from the laser diode into a singlemode fiber and then collimate the output from the fiber. The fiber acts as a spatial filter, providing a near perfect Gaussian output.

How do I choose a collimating lens? ›

Ideally, the numerical aperture of the collimating lens should match with the numerical aperture of the fiber or source. If the numerical aperture of the source is greater than the numerical aperture of the optic, the optic is considered overfilled and not all of the light will be collected by the optic.

What is the purpose of collimator? ›

collimator, device for changing the diverging light or other radiation from a point source into a parallel beam. This collimation of the light is required to make specialized measurements in spectroscopy and in geometric and physical optics.

What is monochromaticity of laser? ›

Monochromatic means that all of the light produced by the laser is of a single wavelength. White light is a combination of all visible wavelengths (400 - 700 nm). Directional means that the beam of light has very low divergence.

What is spot size of laser beam? ›

The diameter of the laser spot in practice usually ranges between a few hundred micrometres and 6–10 mm.

What is meant by collimating? ›

verb (used with object), col·li·mat·ed, col·li·mat·ing. to bring into line; make parallel. to adjust accurately the line of sight of (a telescope).

What is another name for collimator? ›

In this page you can discover 11 synonyms, antonyms, idiomatic expressions, and related words for collimator, like: beamsplitter, , wavefront, monochromator, ifu, collimation, polariser, electron beam, collimate, polarimeter and pick off.

How do you focus a laser beam? ›

basically, the focusing of a laser beam is achieved by using a single- or multi-lens laser optic, that is mainly characterized by its focal length and the diameter of the free aperture. Figure 1 shows the transformation of a laser beam through an ideal optical lens with a focal length f.

How do you make collimated lights? ›

To produce collimated light you can either place an infinitesimally small source exactly one focal length away from an optical system with a positive focal length or you can observe the point source from infinitely far away.

Do you need to collimate a refractor? ›

Collimation is important for getting the best out of your scope. Poor collimation will result in optical aberrations and distorted images. The optical axis of the objective (main) lens must be aligned with the optical axis of the eyepiece.

How often do you need to collimate a telescope? ›

Finally, reflectors will need frequent collimation — as in, every time you transport it to a different site, and maybe even if you don't. I collimate my observatory-based 18-inch reflector before every session. Fortunately, collimating a reflector is simple. Once you get the process down, it takes only a few minutes.

How does a collimator sight work? ›

A collimator sight is a type of optical sight that allows the user looking into it to see an illuminated aiming point aligned with the device the sight is attached to, regardless of eye position (with little parallax). They are also referred to as collimating sights or "occluded eye gunsight" (OEG).

What does collimation look like? ›

You want to see a diffraction pattern of concentric circles appear around it. Basically, this refers to circles around the star that might look a little wiggly. If the circles you see are not concentric, then your telescope needs to be collimated.

Why do I see the spider in my telescope? ›

Spider vanes are the plastic or metal pieces that hold the secondary mirror in place in reflector telescopes. If your scope is extremely out of focus, not collimated or you are not using an eyepiece, these spider vanes will be visible.

How do you use a collimation cap? ›

Point the telescope at a lit wall and insert the collimating cap into the focuser in place of a regular eyepiece. Look into the focuser through your collimating cap. You may have to twist the focus knob a few turns until the reflected image of the focuser is out of your view.

How do you change laser spot size? ›

Beam diameter can be increased with beam expanders placed between the collimating lens and focus lens. Increasing beam diameter reduces beam divergence and allows beam to focused to a smaller spot size. This strategy is commonly used in marking lasers to control spot size, but can also be used in welding lasers.

Is collimated light coherent? ›

Laser light is said to be coherent, collimated, and monochromatic. Ordinary light, however, is incoherent, non-collimated, and polychromatic. Coherent means that laser light travels in waves with each other both temporally and spatially and in the same direction.

What is collimating mirror? ›

In optics, a collimator may consist of a curved mirror or lens with some type of light source and/or an image at its focus. This can be used to replicate a target focused at infinity with little or no parallax. In lighting, collimators are typically designed using the principles of nonimaging optics.

How much does a laser beam spread over distance? ›

Around 100 meters away from a red laser pointer, its beam is about 100 times wider and looks as bright as a 100-watt light bulb from 3 feet away.

Which laser has highest divergence? ›

Generally, reds have better divergence than greens because of the optics used. This does not meant green lasers have inherently poor divergence. With the right setup, the same or better divergence can be achieved. Better divergence means that the beam will be visible over a longer distance.

Can you deflect laser beam? ›

Hi there, The only method to deflect a laser beam is via a mirror.

How do you focus a laser diode? ›

Focusing a Diode Laser Quickly - Featuring the Ortur Laser Master 2

Are diode lasers hazardous? ›

Most diode lasers emitting in the 1300-nanometer range are low-powered and do not present a serious hazard unless the beam is directed into the eye for long periods.

What is coherent in laser? ›

Lasers generate coherent, monochromatic light in many wavelengths, both visible and invisible, depending on the type of laser. The property of coherence makes lasers very different than typical light sources; and very hazardous to the eyes and/or skin.

How do you collimate white light? ›

White light from a pinhole is collimated by the first lens and then focused by the second. This forms an image of the slit at the second focal point of the second lens. The iris cutoff partially blocks this light, forming a gray background on the screen or focal plane of a camera.

How do you collimate a Gaussian beam? ›

Collimating a Gaussian Beam

Achieving a truly collimated beam where the divergence is 0 is not possible, but achieving an approximately collimated beam by either minimizing the divergence or maximizing the distance between the point of observation and the nearest beam waist is possible.

What is collimation angle? ›

Jul 5, 2018. [5.10] The angle subtended by a luminaire at an irradiated surface. This term is obsolete.

How does collimation improve image quality? ›

Proper collimation is one of the aspects of optimising the radiographic imaging technique. It prevents unnecessary exposure of anatomy outside the area of interest, and it also improves image quality by producing less scatter radiation from these areas.

What are the 4 types of collimators? ›

Four types of parallel-hole collimators find routine use in nuclear medicine clinics: LEHR (low-energy, high-resolution), LEAP (low-energy, all-purpose), MEAP (medium-energy, all-purpose), and HEAP (high-energy, all-purpose).

Which material is used as a collimator? ›

Lead is the most commonly used material for collimators, because of it's high density.

Why does a laser beam show high Monochromaticity? ›

The light from a laser typically comes from one atomic transition with a single precise wavelength. So the laser light has a single spectral color and is almost the purest monochromatic light available.

How do you find the monochromaticity of a laser? ›

A light beam will be perfectly monochromatic if its degree of non-chromaticity is zero. This is possible if Δv = 0. As Δv cannot be 0 for any type of light beam, so no light beam can be perfectly monochromatic.

What is responsible for high monochromaticity of laser? ›

Oscillations can sustain only at the resonance frequency of the cavity. This leads to the narrowing of the laser line width. So, the laser light is usually very pure in wavelength, and the laser is said to have the property of monochromaticity.

How small can a laser spot be? ›

The maximum laser power is 20 W and the smallest spot size is about 15 μm diameter. Continuous laser—It is used for laser-assisted micromilling/grinding process. The maximum laser power is 200 W and the spot size is 4 mm diameter.

How small can you focus a laser? ›

It will allow you to have a spot of 50 nm or even smaller size. For highest power density, the most important is to take care about f/d ratio (f/W in the other formula).

How do you calculate laser parameters? ›

The optical parameters used in the theoretical calculations are: R1=R2=-0.8m, L=670mm, L1=310mm, f0=400mm [3], and L3=920mm. 2. Analyses It is found that the average experimental linewidths lay within 10% of theoretical values.

What are the types of collimator? ›

The two basic types of collimators are pinhole and multihole. A pinhole collimator operates in a manner similar to that of a box camera (Fig. 2-7). Radiation must pass through the pinhole aperture to be imaged, and the image is always inverted on the scintillation crystal.

What is collimation in CT? ›

Abstract. Dynamic collimation is an important dose reduction mechanism for helical CT scans, especially for modern wide-beam scanner models. Its implementation and efficacy need to be studied to optimize CT scan protocols and to reduce unnecessary patient dose.

What is meant by collimated in physics? ›

collimated (comparative more collimated, superlative most collimated) (physics, of a light beam) Composed of rays that are parallel, thus having a wavefront that is planar.

What are the properties of laser? ›

Lasers have three properties: coherency, collimation and monochromatic properties. These three properties of lasers produce a small focus point of intense power.

Is laser light a divergent? ›

Like all electromagnetic beams, lasers are subject to divergence, which is measured in milliradians (mrad) or degrees.

Is collimated light coherent? ›

Laser light is said to be coherent, collimated, and monochromatic. Ordinary light, however, is incoherent, non-collimated, and polychromatic. Coherent means that laser light travels in waves with each other both temporally and spatially and in the same direction.

Is sun light collimated? ›

Incoming direct sunlight at the earth's surface is treated as a beam with an angle of collimation of ∼0.5° and thus is essentially parallel to ±0.25°.

What are the 4 classes of lasers? ›

There are four main classes for visible-beam lasers: Class 2, Class 3R, Class 3B and Class 4. The first two are relatively safe for eye exposure; the last two are hazardous. The chart below shows that the eye injury hazard increases as the laser's power increases.

Why laser beam is highly directional? ›

Divergence and Directionality:

Laser beam is highly directional, which implies laser light is of very small divergence. This is a direct consequence of the fact that laser beam comes from the resonant cavity, and only waves propagating along the optical axis can be sustained in the cavity.

Do lasers get bigger with distance? ›

A narrower beam of laser light spreads out more quickly than a wider beam. Only an infinitely wide beam (a plane wave) does not spread out, and therefore has parallel waves. Divergence is observed by shining a laser light on a wall and then seeing the spot grow bigger as you move away from the wall.

Do lasers spread out over distance? ›

Your pocket laser pointer

Still, the narrow beam will spread out over long distances. Around 100 meters away from a red laser pointer, its beam is about 100 times wider and looks as bright as a 100-watt light bulb from 3 feet away.

How do you prevent laser beam divergence? ›

Beam expanders are often used to reduce beam divergence and ensure the beam diameter does not exceed a specified limit at distances far from the output beam waist.

How do you know if a laser is coherent? ›

Characteristic Properties of Laser - Coherence - Physics - YouTube

How do you collimate a laser beam? ›

To collimate a diverging light source with a lens, you can place the lens a distance away from the source, equal to the focal length of the lens. Here, we have a diverging beam of light and a positive lens at a distance equal to the focal length away.

Are all lasers coherent? ›

Lasers generate coherent, monochromatic light in many wavelengths, both visible and invisible, depending on the type of laser. The property of coherence makes lasers very different than typical light sources; and very hazardous to the eyes and/or skin.

Can you make a laser with the sun? ›

Solar-pumped lasers already exist: they work by concentrating sunlight onto crystalline materials such as neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet, causing them to emit laser light. Until now, however, most solar-pumped lasers have relied on extremely large mirrors to focus the sunlight on the crystal.

Can sunlight be turned into a laser? ›

A solar-pumped laser (SPL) that converts sunlight directly into a coherent and intense laser beam generally requires a large concentrating lens and precise solar tracking, thereby limiting its potential utility.

What is collimating mirror? ›

In optics, a collimator may consist of a curved mirror or lens with some type of light source and/or an image at its focus. This can be used to replicate a target focused at infinity with little or no parallax. In lighting, collimators are typically designed using the principles of nonimaging optics.

Videos

1. Telescope Tips: Collimating a Laser Collimator
(MikeyJ)
2. Laser Collimating the Refractor
(Valley Astro)
3. Laser Beam Alignment with Electronic Autocollimator
(TRIOPTICS GmbH)
4. Coupling a collimated laser beam into a single mode fiber optic
(optical-calculation)
5. Optics: Two-beam interference - collimated beams | MIT Video Demonstrations in Lasers and Optics
(MIT OpenCourseWare)
6. Aligning a Telescope without a laser! Collimation, Mirrors, and Eyepieces, oh my!
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